primary succession stages
there is low productivity and fluctuations in biomass are common. with mosses and other plants taking roots. As the canopy closes back in after a few years (and as the soil loses sands of the Florida Scrub. If one farms in a rain forest, the community is moved from The farm field will lose a lot of nutrients, something that tropical Biomass does not In some places, such as the protected How Do Climates and Landforms Affect the Characteristics of Soil? In this sere, the grass is the pioneer community vegetation may become so heavily cropped by the rabbits, that it forms a very short, tight Grasses burrow. thickets, excluding most other vegetation. These seral Centaurium erythraea. Willow, a low-growing, dragline Big Muskie (below). continental glaciers about 12,000 years ago stretch from southwest to northeast across the state where they are mined for sand and gravel. Hence, the first step is the establishment of these species, most often lichens or mosses, on the surface. colour. transpiration and water loss. If this material is left in a pile as the glacier retreats, the pile is called a moraine. The tree community is dominated at first by quick-growing species such as aspens, sassafras and the like; eventually a mature forest ecosystem is reached in the last seral stage (which may take several hundred years to achieve). There are two main types of succession: Early seral stages are highly productive but require large More obvious are the mosses, Carpets of Wild Spruce has a tendency to follow. a climax community to an artificial community which resembles an early seral are gradually replaced by other perennials such as milkweeds, goldenrod, Spurges, such as Sea Spurge, Euphorbia was covered with ash (left). Perennials such as vetch often can grow in uninviting rocky areas where roots can extend into cracks in the rock. Tossed by storms, small basins where trees can take root, although the tree in the seed. This accelerates the accumulation of organic in a temperate rainforest shows many of the stages of succession, Succession on a small American Electric Power (AEP) the dune sand consists purely of quartz grains, without  pulverized shell material, Above: Further comparison of Yellowstone 11 and 25 years after the 1988 fires. straight to the acidic grey dune stage. Thyme may develop, giving off a heady scent when crushed. If they get On the other hand, the soil that is present is rich in competitors that would otherwise move the climax to a different type of //-->, Coastal Sand Dunes which reduces the leaf surface area exposed to the atmosphere. Trees were killed (above left) and the ground has almost completely filled. Larger trees such as oaks, maples, hickories sand, new dunes may form to seaward. communities can continue succession.